Queen parrotfish (Scarus vetula)

The male queen parrotfish (Scarus vetula) is one of the most striking fish in the Carribean and happens to be my 2nd favorite fish. Females are a drab blue brown color while males are green-blue. This is an example of sexual dimorphism. Both sexes have plate-like beaks which give them the name parrotfish. They use these beaks to break off coral covered in algae. they then chew that mass and excrete the matter that isn’t algae. This process creates sand from the coral they ingest and is actually a major way in which sand is produced. This grazing also opens up space for coral to grow back in areas overtaken by algae. In areas without parrotfish reefs have been shown to shrink because coral can’t out-compete algae. They also feed on sponges and other creatures that may be attached to the reef. The fish is also known by the names blownose, blue chub, blueman, blue parrotfish, Joblin crow parrot, moontail, Okra peji, and slimy head. They are native to reefs in the Carribean, and thus also restricted to shallow water. 1622-parrotfish_0

The fish breed throughout the year but typically restrict breeding to mornings. The fish exercise harem polygyny, which means that one male mates with a harem of females. They school in groups with one male and 3-4 females. However, the fish are also protogynous hermaphrodite which means that they can change their sex from female to male. In fact, all queen parrotfish are born as females. As they mature the largest in the school becomes male. The male that mates with the females is called a supermale and is identifiable by his bright coloration. The male chases the females and they swim in tighter and tighter circles until they release their gametes and the eggs are fertilized through external fertilization.

queen_parrotfish_scarus_vetula_initial_phase_28345847526929
A female queen parrotfish (Scarus vetula)

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Freshwater fish families

There are 16 major families of freshwater fish in the United States. Knowing which family a fish is from will help you to identify it easier. It is important to already know the parts of a fish before reading this post, you can find this information here.

  • Lepisosteidae: gar family
    • these fish have a long cylindrical body
    • they have long jaws and snouts with sharp teeth
    • notable species: spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus), longnose gar (Lepisosteus osseus), and alligator gar (Lepisosteus spatula)
Kaimanfische (Lepisosteus)
Florida gar (Lepisosteus platyrhincus)
  • Clupeidae: herring family
    • thin silvery fish
    • have no lateral line
    • have a saw like pectoral fin
    • notable species: gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum) and the threadfin shad (Dorosoma pentenense)
alosa_sapidissima
American Shad (Alosa sapidissima)
  • Cyprinidae: carp and minnow family
    • mouthparts are not sucker-like
    • the largest family of freshwater fish
    • notable species: central stoneroller (Campostoma anomalum), red shiner (Cyprinella lutrensis), blacktail shiner (Cyprinella venusta), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), golden shiner (Notemigonus crysoleucas), bullhead minnow (Pimephales vigilax)

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